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Glendoe Hydro Electric Scheme is one of the biggest such schemes to be built in Scotland for many years. SSE Generation Ltd (SSE) gathered around them the very best and most experienced folk to design and construct the major tunneling works. HM Queen Elizabeth officially opened the scheme on 29 June 2009.Next day the engineer heard unusual thumping noises. He didn’t know then but the main tunnel had collapsed. SSE was “shell-shocked”. It was just eight months since Hochtief Solutions AG had completed this £126m design and build prestige project. It had gone so well. The bill for a new tunnel is £130m. Who pays? The contract document was based on NEC2 Option A, signed back in 2005.Shall we come back to who carries the can shortly?Start, if you will, with the endeavour to avoid the confounded disaster altogether. It’s easy. You gather around you the best in the business. That’s what happened here. SSE (the employer) owns and operates 80 hydroelectric power stations and 214 tunnels (a total of 320km). True, SSE took a limited role in Glendoe design and build contract. Instead it went to one of the world’s top contractors and engaged one of the world’s top consultants to supervise the works. There were geology consultants, designers for the civils works, and a top M&E subcontractor. And on top of that, reflect please, that the science of tunnelling dates back to antiquity. The modern history of using unlined tunnels (as here) is over 50-years old. There are several thousand kilometres of unlined tunnels. The tunnel-boring machine is tried and tested.Initially the toing and froing between SSE and Hochtief was amicable. There were meetings galore. Then relations began to coolAt Glendoe water from a reservoir flows down a tunnel to a turbine deep underground, from there it flows through another tunnel into Loch Ness. The combined length of both tunnels is 8km. They each have a diameter of five metres, roughly the same size as that of a London Underground tunnel. The water travels at high speed and creates high pressure within the tunnel. Very little tunnel lining is needed. That water drives the runner wheels on the turbine and makes your tea.Having taken possession of the site in early 2006, Hochtief completed on time December 2008. The work had been scrutinised by many experienced tunnellers both during and after the tunnel boring machine drive. They included geologists, tunnel designers, engineers and tunnel boring machine crew. All were actively looking for problems. None of them saw signs of faults that might threaten tunnel stability. Nothing in the detailed records evidences behaviour that would potentially cause the catastrophic collapse that occurred.Initially the toing and froing between SSE and Hochtief was amicable. There were meetings galore. Then relations began to cool. A representative of SSE said: “There was an awful lot of talk going-on and not a lot of meat coming out of it.”The two stumbling blocks were: (1) “What’s to be done?” and (2) “Who pays?”. Hochtief said the collapse was an employer’s risk event. SSE said it was the contractor’s risk event.As to the contract document, the promise in NEC, is that the contractor will carry-out the works in accordance with the works information. A “defect” is a part of the works, not in accordance with the works information or a part of the works designed by the contractor. And, if a defect arises, the contractor must correct it before the expiry of the defects liability period without compensation, unless it is an employer’s risk event. Hochtief dug in here. It wanted SSE to agree payment or else it would not carry out the remedial works. SSE said it would agree a 50:50 cost share until liability had been determined. Hochtief refused. SSE now went to four contractors for the “recovery project”. Bam was selected. There was no time to investigate a formal tender. Bam said, and SSE accepted it, that it would construct an 830m by-pass tunnel on NEC Conditions being Option E, known as the “Cost Re-imburseable” contract. The indicative price was £30m. The works began: it seems to have grown arms and legs, and new indicative prices arose. Then Bam agreed a fixed price of £109m, once the design was made final. The final account was £114m. Who pays? That same question came.The reason the Hochtief tunnel collapsed was poor rock, insufficient shotcrete and rock bolts. SSE argued that the NEC contract pointed liability at Hochtief. The tunnel was not in accordance with the contractor’s design. Wrong, said Hochtief. The contractor is not liable for defects in his design so far as he proves that he used reasonable skill and care, to ensure that it complied with the works information. This is NEC Option M. That is an obligation to use reasonable skill and care.SSE wanted the court to decide Hochtief was promising tunnels fit for their purpose; strict liability. The words in NEC don’t go that far. The remedial cost is not down to Hochtief. But Hochtief was wrong to refuse to do the works. Did SSE pay Bam more than it would have paid Hochtief? That’s a difficult call, with liability on Honchtief. It remains to be seen whether it will require yet more litigation to decide whether it has to stump up any money to SSE.Tony Bingham is a barrister and arbitrator at 3 Paper Buildings, Temple
Menoyo will be responsible for the strategic direction of sales, marketing and administration of Crowley’s logistics and ocean transportation services in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and other islands of the Caribbean.He previously served as vice president, terminal and marine operations for the USA, including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Patrick Collins, who joined Crowley in 2012, will takeover this role and will be responsible for the logistics group’s terminal and vessel services. www.crowley.com
Clarinetist Junnan Sun, pictured, and pianist Megan-Geoffrey Prins will present a recital for the Cape Town Concert Series on Saturday May 25, at the Baxter Concert Hall, at 7.30pm. They will perform Joseph Horowitz’s Sonatina for Clarinet and Piano, Carl Vine’s First Sonata for Piano, Schumann’s Fantasiestücke, Alexander Johnson’s Jazz Sonatina and the Carmen Fantasy by Sarasate arranged by Nicolas Baldeyrou. Tickets cost from R160 to R190 through Webtickets. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org or 084 682 1337 for more information.
MARCH 31 saw the start of revenue services on two further sections of the Porto Metro, bringing the light rail network to 58·2 km serving 65 stations.The Green Line (C) was extended by 4·5 km from Fórum Maia to Ismai, using the alignment of a former metre-gauge line which had been closed for conversion in February 2002. Only a limited service was initially provided to the four new stations, pending the completion of signalling work towards the end of May.The other addition was a 5·9 km northern extension of the Yellow Line (D) from Pólo Universit
AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to LinkedInLinkedInLinkedInThis week is Child Safety Week and in association with the Child Accident Prevention Trust, we’ll be backing the campaign by delivering youth education across Scotland, and publishing a series of safety tips for parents and carers.Accidents are a leading cause of death, serious injury and acquired disability for children and young people in the UK. They account for three deaths every week and over 2,000 hospital admissions.Child Safety Week aims to help families understand the risks, as well as the consequences – but most importantly, the simple ways that accidents can be prevented.Take a look at http://www.childsafetyweek.org.uk/ to find out what you can do.
Contemporary painter and Farmington Hills resident Cindy Carleton will discuss her creative process during an artist talk and reception held Friday, Sept. 6, 6-8 p.m., at Farmington Hills City Hall.A Michigan native, Carleton extracts items she finds in her backyard to make materials for use in her work, which reflects traditional Japanese and Native American styles. She conveys in her artwork the natural intervals of form and space, sound and pause, and motion and stillness.“Noh Fish” by Cindy Carleton (contributed)A graduate with honors from Wayne State University, Carleton earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree with a concentration in Advertising Design and Marketing. She has an extensive career in creative direction and brand marketing.“Shh Listen” by Cindy Carleton (contributed)Carleton’s artwork has been shown in the Scarab Club Printmaker Exhibit, the Detroit Gallery Crawl, in the Farmington Hills Public Art Program. She is a member of the Farmington Area Arts Commission, The Farmington Area Arts Council, Detroit Institute of Arts, and Adcraft Club of Detroit.Carleton’s exhibit, “Oh The Things You’ll See”, will remain on display through October 11 in the City Hall Rotating Exhibits Gallery near the Council Chamber. Hours are Monday-Friday, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Reported by Farmington Voice Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window)
Adaptive and intelligent computing expert, Xilinx Inc, has now issued a response to the patent infringement lawsuit filed by Analog Devices Inc (ADI). The lawsuit by ADI focused on the unauthorized use by Xilinx of several important ADI patents relating to converter technology in at least two of Xilinx’s High End Zynq UltraScale+ RFSoC products. Filed in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware, the lawsuit seeks damages and an injunction that prevents Xilinx from selling any products that infringe ADI’s patents. The complaint can be viewed here.Following is the statement issued by Xilinx against the lawsuit:“On December 5, 2019, a patent infringement lawsuit was filed by Analog Devices against Xilinx and our Zynq UltraScale+ RFSoC in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware. We intend to vigorously defend against this lawsuit. Xilinx has a history of creating pioneering technology spanning multiple decades. We created what many thought could not be done with the introduction of the Zynq UltraScale+ RFSoC – the industry’s only single-chip adaptable radio platform. Through its patent lawsuit, Analog Devices has chosen to litigate rather than compete in the market.”Future updates are awaited.
Pasternack, an Infinite Electronics brand and a leading provider of RF, microwave and millimeter-wave products, has just expanded its line of RF hybrid couplers with new models that meet the demands for higher frequency components. Pasternack’s hybrid coupler line expansion consists of 21 new models with a high-frequency operating range of up to 40 GHz for wideband applications.Main Features of these Hybrid Couplers are as follows:High operating frequency range up to 40GHz for wideband applications.Coaxial designs with SMA and 2.92mm connectors.Output phase shifts of 90 degrees and 180 degrees available.Power handling capability up to 100W(CW).Very good isolation and insertion loss performances with low return loss.Flat phase balance performance across the frequency range.Pasternack’s new high-performance hybrid couplers are in-stock and available for immediate shipping with no minimum order quantity (MOQ) required.Click here to view hybrid couplers from Pasternack.
The saga of LeBron and Draymond beefing over t-shirts continues.While Green fired back at LeBron’s Ultimate Warrior t-shirt from one year ago by wearing a “Quickie” t-shirt designed in similar fashion to the Quicken Loans Arena logo, LeBron pulled out the always classic “that’s what she said,” card. Related Topics Matt Medley is co-editor at NEO Sports Insiders, covers the Cleveland Cavaliers, Cleveland Indians and high school sports in Northeast Ohio.Follow @MedleyHoops on Twitter for live updates from games. Matt Medley